Modelling Pliocene warmth: contribution of atmosphere, oceans and cryosphere

first_imgThe relative role of the atmosphere, oceans and cryosphere in contributing towards middle Pliocene warmth (ca 3 Ma BP) is investigated using the HadCM3 coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. The model was initialised with boundary conditions from the USGS PRISM2 data set and a Pliocene atmospheric CO2 level of 400 ppmv and run for 300 simulated years. The simulation resulted in a global surface temperature warming of 3degreesC compared to present-day. In contrast to earlier modelling experiments for the Pliocene, surface temperatures warmed in most areas including the tropics (1-5degreesC). Compared with present-day, the model predicts a general pattern of ocean warming (1-5degreesC) in both hemispheres to a depth of 2000 m, below which no significant differences are noted. Sea ice coverage is massively reduced (up to 90%). The flow of the Gulf Stream/North Atlantic Drift is up to 100 mm s(-1) greater in the Pliocene case. Analysis of the model-predicted meridional streamfunction suggests a global pattern of reduced outflow of Antarctic bottom water (AABW; up to 5 Sv), a shallower depth for North Atlantic deep water formation and weaker thermohaline circulation (3 Sv). The decrease in AABW occurs mainly in the Pacific rather than Atlantic Ocean. Model diagnostics for heat transports indicate that neither the oceans nor the atmosphere are transporting significantly more heat in the Pliocene scenario. Rather, these results indicate that the major contributing mechanism to global Pliocene warmth was the reduced extent of high-latitude terrestrial ice sheets (50% reduction on Greenland, 33% reduction on Antarctica) and sea ice cover resulting in a strong ice-albedo feedback. These results highlight the need for further studies designed to improve our knowledge regarding Pliocene terrestrial ice configurations.last_img read more

PEMCo performs “Into the Woods”

first_imgTags: cinderella, into the woods, little red riding hood, pasquerilla east music company, PEMCo, Washington Hall Pasquerilla East Music Company’s (PEMCo) production of “Into the Woods” will begin performances Thursday night on Washington Hall’s main stage.Actor Chris Siemann said the musical’s plot is a “mash-up” of fairy tales.“It’s Cinderella, Jack and the Beanstalk, Little Red Riding Hood and Rapunzel all thrown into the same story,” Siemann said.Auditions for the cast were held at the beginning of the semester and rehearsals began in September, for several nights a week, Siemann said.“On average, for each of us, it was maybe one to three hours a night,” he said. “Some nights I wasn’t even called, but other nights I was there for four hours.”Siemann said he plays the role of the wolf from Little Red Riding Hood, as well as Cinderella’s prince.“The parts were meant to be double cast, for symbolic reasons,” he said. “The wolf interacts with Little Red Riding Hood, and that story plays out the way you think it would. Then I have to kind of quick change into the Cinderella’s Prince — without spoiling too much, he’s exactly who you think he’s going to be. The characters are similar; they have a very similar mindset of instinct, and getting what [they] want.”“Into the Woods” is a unique show because it has a large cast but no chorus, Siemann said.“There are seventeen people and they’re all unique characters, and we all have our own moment, so to speak, on the stage,” Siemann said. “It’s really cool that we get to develop these characters. When you’re in a chorus, you can still develop your character, but you don’t have as much to work with. So it’s really cool that we’re all on even playing ground.”The production is entirely student-run, which creates a unique experience for all the members of PEMCo, he said.“Everyone understands everyone else’s commitments, we’re all doing school, we all have other things that we’re involved in,” he said. “It makes you feel really proud of something, that we’re working as one unit.”Producer and senior Emma Kusters said she began preparations for the production last semester, along with fellow producer and senior Shannon Kirk.“We started last spring, when we reviewed director applications and selected a director for the show, and we picked what show we were going to do,” Kusters said. “Over the summer we were e-mailing, designing set and costumes, and then we had auditions the second week of school.“A large part of my time this summer was revamping the PEMCo website,” Kusters said. “I’ve really been trying to make the information about PEMCo more accessible, so that we can reach students who aren’t already in the PEMCo fold, so we can be pulling in new talent, so that everyone feels welcome to participate and audition in whatever capacity they can.”Kusters said the producers considered several factors in choosing PEMCo’s fall show.“Part of the consideration is always budget,” Kusters said. “We took a pretty big risk this year because usually our fall show is a smaller-scale show. Last year there were only four actors in the show, and the year before that there were seven.“This year we have a seventeen-person cast, and we actually ended up spending even more money on this show than we did on ‘Legally Blonde’ last year, which was our big show last year,” she said.The producers also looked for a show that would appeal to the student body, Kusters said.“Into the Woods’ is all these fairy tales coming together in a sort of fantastical way, in a way that’s also very relevant to the human experience and everyone here,” she said.Kusters said the show has a variety of stunts and visual effects, as well as an elaborate set.“Everyone in the cast has to pitch in to make the set; it was a really a group effort,” she said. “I think this is the best set PEMCo has had in a while.”“Into the Woods” premieres Thursday, November 6th at 7:30 p.m., in Washington Hall. Performances also running November 7th at 7:30 p.m., and November 8th at 4:00 p.m. Tickets are $7 for students and $10 for non-students.last_img read more

BiH lost from Spain in a Friendly Match (Gallery + Video)

first_img[wzslider autoplay=”true”]National football team of BiH was defeated with the score 3: 1 by selection of Spain in a friendly match that was played in St. Gallen. Our team provided very good resistance since they played without excluded Emir Spahic from the 45th minute, whose reckless move marked the match.This was the 7th meeting between BiH and Spain and the first in the friendly matches. Counting this match, Spain has 5 wins, while 2 matches were finished as draws.Head coach Mehmed Bazdarevic could not count in this match on injured Ermin Bicakcic, Senad Lulic and Vedad Ibisevic, who were not even on the list. When it comes to players who came from Switzerland, Rijad Bajic drop out because of injury. The 21-year-old striker of Dinamo Zagreb, Armin Hodzic, enrolled his debut in the jersey of the Dragons.On the other side, Vicente del Bosque could not count on players of Barcelona, Real Madrid and Atletico Madrid as well as players of Sevilla. Therefore, Spain came in quite different composition.Spaniards had a 100 % chance through Aduriz in the first minute, which was stopped by our goalkeeper Asmir Begovic. There was no excitement in the next 10 minutes, but Spain had the last word.The network was shaken in 11th minute for the first time, when Nolito checkmated Begovic. The Spaniards had a corner on the left, and after short pass and after a quick action, they made a center shot. Dzeko, in order to eliminate the danger, added the ball to Nolito who scored for 1: 0.Our team looked quite confused at the beginning of the match, and new shock followed by Nolito in the 18th minute. This time Besic poorly responded and Celta Vigo used this and scored for 2:0.As time went by, our team played better and we managed to make better attacks. After such an attack we won a corner on the right, Pjanic centered, and Emir Spahic scored for 2:1 in 29th minute.In last minutes of the match, there was a conflict between our players and players of Spain, in which Spahic got a red card, and our team was left with one player less.On the beginning of the second part, Izet Hajrovic replaced Edin Visca in the 46th minute and brought a bit of freshness to our team, which played very well, although we had a player less.New great chance came in the 66th minute when Duljevic hit goalpost while seeking for Djuric. Four minutes later, Duljevic created another chance after Pjanic’s great shot, but the ball went near the left goalpost.These chances are an indication that the national team of BiH dealt very well with Spain, despite of numerical advantage. The Spaniards had their chance to score in the 75th minute, when Oyarzabal shot next to the goal.When it seemed that the second half will bring no goals, Pedro set the final 3: 1 in the last minute, after which the match was ended.Take a look at the VIDEO.(Source: O. T./ read more