With the world’s largest army, a population four times that of the United States, and an economy that outpaces America’s, it often may seem that this is China’s world and we’re all just living in it.But in a new essay, political scientist Joseph Nye, Ph.D. ’64, says à la Mark Twain that the rumors of America’s demise are grossly exaggerated.In “Is the American Century Over?” Nye, a Harvard University Distinguished Service Professor and former dean of Harvard Kennedy School (HKS), answers that question with a qualified no, suggesting that while the United States will not enjoy the unfettered authority to shape world events that it did in the 20th century, few others nations, not even China, will assemble the economic and military hard power along with the soft power of influence — a term Nye famously coined — to assume the leadership role.The essay summarizes Nye’s work since his 1990 book, “Bound to Lead,” in which he challenged the notion, popularly advanced by British historian Paul Kennedy’s “Lead: The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers,” that America is in decline and its era as a global superpower is over. Nye sat down with the Gazette to talk about why he thinks the United States will hold onto its political perch, and what events or policies could threaten that status.GAZETTE: Explain what you mean by “the American Century” and why has it been fashionable to declare that the U.S. as the superpower is over?NYE: Henry R. Luce, the former editor of Time and Life, proclaimed the American Century in 1941. He proclaimed it because he wanted to get America involved in World War II, and he particularly wanted America to be central to the global balance of power. So I use the term “American Century” in terms of what Luce proclaimed, and ask the question whether in 2041 the Americans will be central to the global balance of power. My conclusion is “yes,” but it won’t be in the same way that Luce expected.Americans have a long history of believing they’re in decline. And it tells you more about our psychology than about our reality. In the 1960s and ’70s, we thought the Russians or the Soviets were 10 feet tall. Then, in the 1980s, we thought the Japanese were 10 feet tall. And today, many people think the Chinese are 10 feet tall. What I try to do is to show that reflects trends and moods of psychology more than it reflects the realities of world politics. The latest trend of belief that the United States is in decline really starts with the Great Recession of 2008, where people see the declining economy as something that’s going to go on for a long time, or forever, rather than a cyclical change.GAZETTE: You say America’s dominance is not necessarily a direct result of economic power or military might and that we still have significant soft-power advantages over other countries, including China. What are some of those advantages, and how might we lose our ability to influence world events in the coming years?NYE: Soft power is the ability to get what you want through attraction rather than coercion or payment. It’s an important component of America’s role in the world. It doesn’t replace the hard power of military capability or economic capability, but it can be what’s sometimes called a “force multiplier,” something that, if used in a smart way with your hard power, can make you more powerful by having hard and soft power reinforce each other. If we were to turn inward, to be less accepting of the rest of the world, [or] if we were to, in contrast, overextend ourselves as I think we did in the Iraq War, we could damage that soft power and undercut our ability to help lead coalitions and networks and alliances that are necessary for being able to provide leadership in the world.GAZETTE: What challenges does China’s largely internal political focus and the increasing upward mobility of many more of its citizens pose for it?NYE: The good news for China is that they’ve raised hundreds of millions of people out of poverty and developed a large middle class. The bad news is they haven’t figured out how to bring that middle class into political participation. What we know is that when countries get to about $10,000-per-capita income, there are increased demands for participation. China hasn’t quite figured out how to accommodate that. So that’s one problem they face, what you might call the political transition. Another problem they face is a demographic transition. China’s population is getting older as a result of the one-child policy. And many Chinese say they “fear they’re going to grow old before they grow rich.” A third problem is: Can they adapt their growth model, which has been heavily reliant upon export industries based along the coast, and become more innovative and more oriented toward their domestic market? Their plans are to do that, but they haven’t yet fully accomplished that. They may be able to do this — that’s sometimes called the “middle-income trap,” that you reach a certain level on the growth model that’s worked so far, and then you don’t develop the institutions and the capacity for innovation that take you to the next level.GAZETTE: You write: “The real problem for the United States is not that it will be overtaken by China or another contender, but that it will be faced with a rise in the power resources of many others — both state and non-state actors,” and that “the U.S. will be less able to control others.” Who are some of these actors, and how will this diffusion of power likely play out?NYE: Some of the actors are other large states like India, which will be the largest country in the world by population by the middle of this century; Brazil; Indonesia, which is the largest Muslim country in the world; perhaps Nigeria or South Africa — we don’t know how their fates are going to turn out. But the point is there will be many more states that will have more power than they’ve had in the past. In addition to those state actors, there are a lot of non-state actors who are empowered by the information revolution. Perhaps the most dramatic of these would be cyber actors — “hacktivists” and even cybercriminals and other such groups — who are able to do things that often in the past were reserved to governments. So the combination of more state actors and more powerful non-state actors makes a world in which it’s harder to get things done. This is sometimes called entropy, the inability to get work done. ISIS is a very good example of such a non-state actor. But I worry more about entropy than I worry about China.GAZETTE: Does it dilute America’s overall power, or will it force us to rely on other strategies?NYE: If we rely on other strategies, we can overcome this. If we see that our role is to organize coalitions and networks to get things done, then we can repair the problems that this creates for American power. But if we think that we can either do it ourselves or opt out of anybody doing it, then we’ll suffer the consequences along with others. If you think of problems like global financial stability or dealing with climate change or dealing with pandemics or dealing with transnational terrorism, these are not problems that we can solve by ourselves. Our ability to manage those problems depends on our ability to organize coalitions with others.GAZETTE: What are some of the “new transnational issues” that will require the U.S. to exert power with others rather than power over others, and what should the U.S. do to build and bolster our continued primacy?NYE: One of the things we have to do is to make sure that we support international institutions. We have issues of trade agreements that are coming up before the Congress, some of which are controversial. We have issues like the international Law of the Sea Convention which is very much in our interests, but which has not been ratified by the U.S. Senate because of the opposition of some senators who say it gives away too much of our sovereignty. You have an agreement that was reached in 2010 to increase the emerging markets’ share of the voting quota in the International Monetary Fund, and Congress has not gone ahead and passed that. These are the sorts of things where taking a very narrow view of our self-interest interferes with our being able to accomplish our larger self-interest.GAZETTE: In the last decade, the U.S. has taken two very different positions regarding foreign policy under Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama. How has that swing affected our ability to influence others, and how will the domestic and foreign policy views of our next president affect our standing globally in the coming decade?NYE: It’s sometimes said that America swings between maximalist policies and retrenchment policies, which is a little different from isolationism in the sense that retrenchment doesn’t mean pulling back as thoroughly as we did in the 1930s. For example, [Dwight] Eisenhower was a president who followed policies of retrenchment. but nobody would call him an isolationist. The question is how far these cycles go, if the extent to which we pull back from the world and pay less attention to the development of international networks and coalitions undercuts our ability to get things done that are in our own interest. We’ll have to see in the 2016 presidential debate(s) how these issues are brought to the public for discussion. I don’t think we’re in danger of isolationism; what we are, though, is in danger of what’s sometimes been called “American exemptionalism,” of giving us a pass on things, like the Law of the Sea ratification or like this new quota for the International Monetary Fund, of opting out. It’s not exactly the same as isolationism, but it’s a failure of international leadership [that] plays well to populist, demagogic pressures.GAZETTE: In the essay, you say you “guess” the U.S. will “still have primacy in power resources and play the central role in the global balance of power among states in 2041.” What events, actions, or policies could undermine that probability?NYE: If you had a series of major terrorist attacks using weapons of mass destruction, it’s conceivable that Americans might turn inward [and] become very isolationist. I don’t think it would solve our problems, but that would obviously undercut our ability to lead. Or if we thought that, given the problems in the Middle East, somehow if we just went in there and tried to rule those countries that we would be able to do so, that could lead to the type of setback which we suffered in Iraq, but even more so. And that would also greatly hinder our capacity to lead. Nobody can predict the future, but the swings in mood that we have tell us more about psychology than reality. So what I’ve been trying to do in this work is to get people to look at some real factors and also some potential strategic choices that we face that can make the outcome one way rather than another.This interview has been lightly edited for length and clarity.
Related Shows Show Closed This production ended its run on June 28, 2015 Dinner with the Boys will feature set design by Jessica Parks, costumes by Patricia E. Doherty, lighting design by Jill Nagle and sound design by Matt Kraus. Dinner With the Boys View Comments Set in New Jersey, Dinner with the Boys follows two pals (think an Italian Odd Couple) who find themselves at odds with the family. While reflecting on their days of glory and preparing puttanesca for their dinner guests, they must escape danger themselves—lest this meal be their last supper. Tickets are now available to see stage and screen vet Dan Lauria in his new self-penned comedy, Dinner with the Boys. Performances will begin off-Broadway at the Acorn Theatre at Theater Row on April 21. Opening night is set for May 4. Joining Lauria are Ray Abruzzo and Richard Zavaglia. Frank Megna will direct.
A recent University of Georgia Cooperative Extension survey of 431 Georgia vegetable fields found that more than 60% contained root-knot nematodes, tiny parasitic worms that feed on roots and destroy plants.The survey was conducted May through December of 2018 by UGA Extension nematologist Abolfazl Hajihassani. His research group surveyed fields in 30 Georgia counties for plant-parasitic nematodes and found 10 genera of nematodes. Root-knot nematodes are the most important nematodes that vegetables producers should be concerned with, he said.Hajihassani conducted the survey to better understand the incidence, abundance and spread of plant-parasitic nematodes within vegetable fields in southern Georgia. The counties surveyed represent about 85-90% of the state’s vegetable production.During the survey, soil samples were collected from vegetable fields and nematodes were extracted and identified to the genus level.“Right now, the root-knot nematode is the main problem in most vegetable crops grown here, based on distribution, soil population density and incidence,” he said. “Therefore, root-knot nematodes will be the target of our future research, which will include the evaluation of old and newly introduced fumigant and nonfumigant nematicides.”Root-knot nematodes can enter the plant’s roots and move through the cells where they grow, produce more eggs in only three to four weeks and cause the roots to swell. This reduces the plant’s growth and yield potential.South Georgia’s sandy soils allow nematodes to reproduce frequently because they can move easily through the soil’s loose texture.UGA Extension’s observations in the field indicated that fumigating the soil before applying plastic will stop the nematodes for the season, but only for that season.Hajihassani said that there are a few nematode-resistant vegetable varieties available, but Georgia producers don’t want to use them because of quality issues. Growers prefer to plant high-yielding varieties and use chemical nematicides, although they’re not always 100% effective.Currently, Hajihassani is researching the nine other types of nematodes the survey identified in case they could become threats to vegetable production in Georgia. This includes stubby root, ring, spiral, root lesion, reniform, lance, cyst, stunt, and dagger nematodes.“Hopefully, in one to two years, we’ll have a good source of information as to what species of nematode we have,” he said. “Through Extension agents, we have already communicated the survey data with those growers who participated in our survey. Our aim is to continue sharing the data with growers, find out what problems they have and design the appropriate management techniques.”Nematodes need three components to thrive: water, high temperatures and a suitable host. Georgia has water, hot summers and a variety of host plants, which has Georgia farmers concerned. Along with vegetables, nematodes can cause problems in cotton, peanut and tobacco plants.For more information on Hajihassani’s work and plant-parasitic nematodes, visit https://t.uga.edu/4YK.
Vermont Federal Credit Union adds senior managerBURLINGTON, VT-Joseph M. Finnigan, president and CEO of Vermont Federal Credit Union (VTFCU), is pleased to announce that Janet S. Astore, CPA, has joined the Vermont Federal Credit Union senior management team as Controller.Janet brings to the Credit Union over 20 years of professional experience in accounting, finance, taxation, public accounting and administration. Prior to moving to Vermont, she worked in New York City where she held various management positions at Citibank including; Tax Department Vice President, as well as Tax Department Manager. She was employed at other large multi-national banks including; Sakura Bank, as Tax Compliance Manager, Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank as Tax Compliance Manager, and Arthur Anderson & Co. as a Public Accountant.Janet is a Certified Public Accountant. She has an M.S. in Accounting from the State University of New York in Albany, as well as a B.S. in Adult & Community Education from Cornell University. She spent several years living in Japan and is fluent in Japanese. She lives in Essex with her two sons where she enjoys being a soccer coach and a Sunday school teacher.
The Colombian Military Forces managed to capture the leader of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia’s (FARC) 1st Company, Mobile Column, Daniel Aldana , an Army spokesman reported on May 2. The detainee who is identified as alias “La Bruja” (The Witch), was the FARC contact in the areas of Mogui, Montañitas, Mataplano, La Galleta and Tumaco’s urban center, in addition to being aka “Rambo’s” –the Daniel Aldana Mobile Column’s leader– trusted man. The operation was carried out in the municipality of Tumaco, Nariño, where soldiers from the 32nd Mobile Brigade obtained the location of the narco-terrorist, who was finally captured after several months of intelligence work. By Dialogo May 06, 2013 The Witch had been in the organization for over 13 years, and was in charge of logistical support to obtain medicine, supplies, war material and communication for the FARC mobile column. He also performed combat intelligence tasks, such as locating troops in the area of operations in order to plant mines and perpetrate terrorist attacks on public force members.
Remember the “olden” days at school when you weren’t allowed to be in the halls without a pass? How times have changed.Monica FinchSchenectadyMore from The Daily Gazette:Foss: Should main downtown branch of the Schenectady County Public Library reopen?Motorcyclist injured in Thursday afternoon Schenectady crashEDITORIAL: Urgent: Today is the last day to complete the censusSchenectady High School senior class leaders look to salvage sense of normalcyEDITORIAL: Thruway tax unfair to working motorists Categories: Letters to the Editor, Opinion
Would you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletters To access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week.
To access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week. Would you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletters
Willian threatens to nutmeg David Luiz when Chelsea face Arsenal Comment Willian has threatened to nutmeg Luiz when Chelsea face Arsenal (Picture: Getty)The Blues then play host to their London rivals at Stamford Bridge on January 21.AdvertisementAdvertisementOn the prospect of coming up against his close friend, Willian told Brazilian outlet Globo Esporte: ‘I’ve faced him a few times, he for Chelsea, me for Shakthar, me for Chelsea, he for PSG.‘Now it’s he for Arsenal. He’s a brother that I have, we met at the age of eight.‘But on the pitch… there’s no way. If I have to nutmeg him, I will.’More: FootballRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starChelsea defender Fikayo Tomori reveals why he made U-turn over transfer deadline day moveMikel Arteta rates Thomas Partey’s chances of making his Arsenal debut vs Man CityFollowing Luiz’s horror show display against Southampton, Martin Keown suggested that Unai Emery should drop the defender from his starting XI.‘They gave the job to Emery but that is beginning to look like it was the wrong move,’ Keown said in his Daily Mail column.‘Now the decision-makers at Arsenal have another big call to make: do they stick with Emery or look elsewhere?‘Arsenal are lost at the moment. If they decide to stick with Emery then the manager has big decisions to make himself.’ Advertisement Keown and Adams have both been outspoken critics of Luiz (Picture: Getty)Former club captain Tony Adams also ripped into Luiz for his part in Ings’ goal which broke the deadlock last weekend.‘They’re all sleeping look at Luiz here,’ Adams said in his role as a pundit for BT Sport.‘What is Luiz doing? He’s just standing there.‘They’ve tried to play out from the back creating their own problems and they’re not into this game at all hopefully they might get a reaction.’More: FootballBruno Fernandes responds to Man Utd bust-up rumours with Ole Gunnar SolskjaerNew Manchester United signing Facundo Pellistri responds to Edinson Cavani praiseArsenal flop Denis Suarez delivers verdict on Thomas Partey and Lucas Torreira movesHe added: ‘We’ve got fantastic finishers but the other end is shocking.‘We need something sorted defensively very quickly.’MORE: Unai Emery claims Arsenal fans’ negativity is affecting the confidence of his players Advertisement Metro Sport ReporterWednesday 27 Nov 2019 9:59 pmShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link7.6kShares Willian has sent a warning to David Luiz ahead of Chelsea’s trip to Arsenal (Picture: Getty)Willian has threatened to nutmeg his ‘brother’ David Luiz when Chelsea face Arsenal in the Premier League next month.Luiz has faced heavy criticism since his £8million move from Chelsea to north London last summer and produced yet another poor performance as the Gunners’ drew 2-2 at home to relegation-threatened Southampton at the weekend.The Brazilian centre-back was largely blamed for Danny Ings’ early opener and there have been calls for him to be dropped ahead of Arsenal’s trip to Norwich on Sunday afternoon.Willian has shared a dressing room with Luiz at both club and international level but the pair will be on opposing teams when Chelsea travel to the Emirates for their final game of 2019.ADVERTISEMENT
Year-In-Review: Investing in Schools, Preparing Pennsylvania’s Next Generation December 13, 2016 2016 In Review, Education, Schools That Teach, The Blog, Year in Review Prior to taking office, Pennsylvania’s poorest schools endured the worst of state budget cuts and school districts across the state were forced to raise property taxes, lay-off teachers and increase class sizes. Support for higher education – from our state-funded universities to community colleges – was also on the chopping block.Over the last two years, Governor Wolf prioritized restoring funding for schools and helping to reverse Pennsylvania’s place as one of the worst states for inequality in education funding.Despite historic Republican majorities in the legislature, the governor has secured historic increases in his first two years:$465 million more for classrooms to ensure our children have the resources they need to learn,$74.6 million more for early childhood education and intervention, andNearly $100 million more for state-funded universities and community colleges.In 2015, The Washington Post called Pennsylvania’s school funding system the most inequitable in the country. Working together, Governor Wolf and the legislature finally enacted a fair funding formula to help reverse this trend and push new funding out to schools in a fair way for the first time.Governor Wolf also announced the launch of It’s On Us PA – the first statewide campaign to address the crisis of sexual assault in schools and on college campuses. By: J.J. Abbott, Deputy Press Secretary YEAR IN REVIEW SHARE TWEET Like Governor Tom Wolf on Facebook: Facebook.com/GovernorWolf SHARE Email Facebook Twitter