The World Wide Web turns 25 this week. To mark the milestone, the Gazette sat down with Scott Bradner, a senior technology consultant with Harvard who has been involved with the Internet since its early days. Bradner described the succession of networks — ARPANET to CSNET to NSFNET to NEARNET — that helped develop the underlying Internet structure, and then discussed the technology that in the early 1990s took the Internet from the realm of the geeks into our offices, homes, laptops, and, more recently, our phones. The past provides an indication that nobody really knows what’s coming in the future, Bradner says. But he believes that the potential for government regulation is the threat that looms largest, while the Internet’s spread around the world via smartphones holds its greatest promise.GAZETTE: You’ve been involved with the Internet pretty much from the start, haven’t you? What can you tell us about the early days here at Harvard?BRADNER: I was involved from very soon after Harvard’s connection to the ARPANET [Advanced Research Projects Agency Network], I think in 1970 or ’71. I got an account on the Gateway machine at [the] Aiken [Computer Lab] in ’71 or ’72.GAZETTE: Was that a key machine?BRADNER: It was a PDP-10. The original ARPANET connected a computer at each institution together: a computer at Harvard with a computer at MIT with a computer at Stanford with a computer at Berkeley. In ’83 a big change happened — the rollout of the TCP/IP protocol — that changed the basic structure. It was connecting a network at Harvard to network at MIT to a network at Stanford to a network at Berkeley. And, therefore, somebody within Harvard at their desktop could talk to somebody at Stanford at their desktop.For most of us in the business, January of ’83 was the beginning of the Internet, per se. The term had been used before that, but the ARPANET wasn’t connecting networks together as much as it was connecting computers.GAZETTE: Did you play a significant role in Internet governance over the years?BRADNER: To some degree, but early on, not particularly. The governance for the ARPANET was the Defense Department. Because it was their toy, they paid for it.Up until ’83, we weren’t permitted to let people who weren’t getting direct federal money use the ARPANET for email or for anything else. But in ’83, we joined CSNET [Computer Science Network], and that gave us the authority to let every Harvard faculty member, student, and staff member use the ARPANET for email.But we didn’t really have an internal network at Harvard then. There were some miscellaneous connections between William James Hall, where I was, and the Science Center and the Aiken Computer Lab. But they were point-to-point. We forwarded email and things like that, but it was only in those locations, and it wasn’t general connectivity.January ’86 was when we put the first inter-building Harvard network together that connected 13 buildings, all in FAS [Faculty of Arts and Sciences]. We connected up to the National Science Foundation Network [NSFNET], but we still couldn’t use the network for commercial purposes.In the late ’80s, Harvard, BU, and MIT joined together to form NEARNET, the Northeast Academic Research Network. We decided we wanted NEARNET not to have that commercial restriction. We also decided that we wanted to be able to talk between NEARNET and the other networks without that limitation. So we insisted the connectivity between NEARNET and other networks be done in a way that would allow a parallel connection that would support commercial traffic.GAZETTE: So this growing complexity eventually became what we know today as the Internet?BRADNER: To me, the prohibition of commercial traffic on NSFNET and ARPANET was what was crucial, because it forced the development of the commercial Net. The fact that we, and a few other regional networks, insisted that we wanted commercial connectivity meant the growth of commercial Internet service providers. So, when Uncle Sam got out of the business, as it did in the early 1990s, the commercial Internet was there in the U.S. In other countries it worked somewhat differently. Harvard just connected to the commercial Internet, and so did everyone else.GAZETTE: Tell me about the World Wide Web, and what is the difference between that and the Internet itself.BRADNER: In the early days, it [communicating between computers] was magic. It was geek heaven. You typed magic character strings in magic formations, and magic happened. To send emails, it was all character-based, character streams you had to type in and understand how to format. You had to do all of that.What the World Wide Web did was it made it so that there was a graphical user interface to the Internet. That meant that it didn’t take a geek to use it. That was a rather big step. Back in ’71 there were 20 computers on the ARPANET, and today there are 900 million or so. So that’s a big number, and a lot of that was driven by the fact that it didn’t take a geek to use it. That’s what the World Wide Web brought us.GAZETTE: So the World Wide Web is not the network of computers itself.BRADNER: The World Wide Web is a user interface. The network itself is effectively the same, other than the scale and number of nodes today, as it was in January ’83, with TCP/IP [network protocol] connecting networks together. Everyone still runs their own network. Harvard runs its own network, MIT runs its own network, Ford Motor Co. runs its own network, and the Internet connects them together.What’s different is that in the early 1990s, the World Wide Web protocols and software was rolled out. It runs over that same network but provides a user interface that’s much easier to use. That’s this pointing and clicking thing where you click on a URL and you get CNN.GAZETTE: By contrast, I’ve seen email listed as another way to access information on the Internet, different from the World Wide Web.BRADNER: They all run over this infrastructure called the Internet. The World Wide Web runs over it, email runs over it, streaming audio, streaming video, Voice over IP, all of those things run over this common infrastructure, and the common infrastructure is what makes it so powerful.The other piece of it is that the World Wide Web developed without getting permission from the network owners. So Tim Berners-Lee comes up with the concepts and the software. He posts some of it himself, and others look at his stuff and say, “I’ll make something compatible.” And they install it on their own systems and start using it. And nobody at Harvard in the networking group has to know that it’s going on. It’s called “permissionless innovation.”The Internet protocol and the Internet provide the underlying structure on which people can build new things. Facebook was just built on the World Wide Web, which was built on top of the Internet, the Internet protocol — just like YouTube was.GAZETTE: How about the future? Do you see any particular changes on the way —positive or negative — for either the Internet or the Web?BRADNER: You asked earlier about Internet governance, and there really isn’t any. And that is a tremendous puzzlement to governments.There’s about $3 trillion a year of business done over the Internet in the U.S. alone, mostly business-to-business. Around the world, there’s multiple times that. But there’s nobody controlling it. There’s voluntary adherence to standards, but there’s no regulatory authority that says, “This Internet service provider has to connect to that Internet service provider. They have to run these protocols, upgrade the software.”This is seen as a gap. The former prime minister of France said it was a moral imperative that the Internet gets regulation. And there’s a meeting in Brazil next month on Internet governance and Internet regulation, and there was a meeting in Dubai last December about this.I think the biggest potential for change is if the governments that would like to control what you can do on the Net get an upper hand. They do have an upper hand in their own countries. In China and in North Korea and a bunch of other places, your Internet experience is very controlled. It’s not very much here.It might be controlled at work, but at home you don’t have much in the way of restrictions about what you can say, what you can view, what applications you can run, who you can talk to, what you pay for. Yet there’s so much money involved and so much social disruption that’s been brought by the Net, there’s huge pressure by more oppressive governments to control this beast. That, to me, is the biggest area of risk.GAZETTE: So you see the biggest potential for change not really being a technological one?BRADNER: The biggest potential for negative change is governance, so it’s nontechnical.On the other side, the change brought about in the last half-dozen years by the smartphone is breathtaking. It’s breathtaking to us in the U.S., where it’s really just been augmentation. In much of the world, the smartphone is the Internet. It’s the only Internet they’ve got. That kind of empowerment of billions of people — particularly in parts of the world that do not have the infrastructure to support regular Internet — is going to be really mind-bending.GAZETTE: And the uses or innovations or general education that will come from that remain to be seen?BRADNER: In general education, things like edX and the MOOCs [Massive Open Online Courses] have the potential to be very, very impactful. The fact that some kid in rural India can take a physics course is breathtaking.The innovation you have on these mobile platforms, people building apps — Apple’s up to a half-million apps and Android is not far behind — is very empowering. There’s going to be a whole lot more applications that nobody’s vaguely thought of. Basically, watch this space. What is the movie line? Fasten your seatbelts, it’s going to be a bumpy ride.
WEST PALM BEACH, Fla. (AP) — The residents of a South Florida condo complex want former President Donald Trump’s name officially removed from their home following the siege at the U.S. Capitol earlier this month. The Palm Beach Post reports that the board of the Trump Plaza condominium voted unanimously last week to change the legal name of the 32-story complex in West Palm Beach. Residents still have to vote on a new name. Signs with Trump’s name have been gone for months, and legally changing the name will sever the final connection to the former president. The complex sits on the Intracoastal Waterway, just a few miles away from Trump’s Mar-a-Lago club.
As part of the University’s remembrance of the late South African president Nelson Mandela, the Notre Dame Center for Ethics and Culture will sponsor a screening of “Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom” on Thursday at 6:30 p.m. in the DeBartolo Performing Arts Center, followed by a panel discussion of the film and its cultural and educational significance. The film itself is based on Mandela’s autobiography of the same name. It stars Idris Elba as Mandela and Naomie Harris as Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, the South African politician and Mandela’s ex-wife. The panel discussion will feature Fr. Emmanuel Katongole of the Notre Dame Kroc Institute, Thomas Hibbs of Baylor University and Thomas Allen of Allied Faith and Family, a division of the Allied Integrated Marketing company. Professor O. Carter Snead, the director of the Center for Ethics and Culture, will moderate the discussion. The screening and discussion, already sold out, is the inaugural event of the Center for Ethics and Culture’s media and culture initiative. According to a written description of the initiative put together by the Center for Ethics and Culture, “The question of how media arts (especially film and television) function and transform culture is a crucially important question that thus far has been underexplored in the social sciences. [Through the media and culture initiative] the Center for Ethics and Culture aims to engage this question in a comprehensive fashion ⎯ one that is simultaneously theoretical and practical.” The event is a special advance screening of the film, which Snead said was made possible by the Weinstein Company, the film’s distributer. “Notre Dame is a culturally significant institution,” Snead said. “Moreover, as a Catholic university, we stand for the values at the heart of this film ⎯ mercy, equality and reconciliation; [University President Emeritus Fr. Theodore] Hesburgh’s legacy for the American civil rights movement stands as further reaffirmation [of] Notre Dame’s commitment to these goods.” Snead said the Center for Ethics and Culture planned the event well before Mandela’s recent death, but his passing provides an added significance to the film. He additionally said members of the Notre Dame community are now paying more attention to the event by people at the University. “Of course the event now takes on a deeper importance,” Snead said. “This is a time when we are reflecting on Mandela’s legacy.” Snead said Mandela’s legacy is important especially at a place like Notre Dame, which prides itself on not only being a research institution but also a promoter of values such as freedom, equality and reconciliation. “[Mandela’s] commitment to non-violence and reconciliation is an important issue we want to explore and celebrate,” Snead said. Snead said he is happy the event sold out, and he said the Center for Ethics and Culture is exploring adding more screenings of the film on campus. “We’re very excited the film sold out in short order,” Snead said. “There’s a lot of interest in [another screening], and we’re certainly open to the possibility of additional screenings. We’ll just have to see what’s possible.” Snead said the Africana Studies Department and the Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies have joined the Center for Ethics and Culture in sponsoring the event, and the University itself added the event as an official remembrance event following Mandela’s death. Snead said the Center for Ethics and Culture chose this film in particular as the first event of the media and culture initiative because it is not only visually and audibly stimulating, but also intellectually and emotionally thought-provoking. “Our feeling was that [the first film featured in the new initiative] had to be aesthetically beautiful and normatively rich,” Snead said. “We also thought [the film] would attract a large and diverse audience.” Contact Jack Rooney at email@example.com
Tony nominee and Emmy winner Valerie Harper, who was diagnosed with terminal brain cancer in March 2013, forcing her to withdraw from a national tour of Looped, has filed a lawsuit against its playwright Matthew Lombardo and the production’s producers. The New York Daily News reports that it claims they failed to pay the remainder of her contract. In response, Lombardo and the producers of Looped have filed a suit against Harper and her husband, Tony Cacciotti, for $2 million, saying the two “were both aware” that the actress was diagnosed with lung cancer in 2009, but did not disclose the information until after she signed onto the play. Lombardo said in a statement that “he was given no choice to defend himself as would anyone in his position and to reluctantly reveal what had actually transpired behind the scenes.” Best known for playing Rhoda Morgenstern Gerard on The Mary Tyler Moore Show and Rhoda, Harper appeared on Dancing With the Stars last fall. A Tony nominee for the 2010 Broadway run of Looped, her other Great White Way credits include Take Me Along, Wildcat, Subways Are For Sleeping, Something Different, Paul Sills’ Story Theatre, Ovid’s Metamorphoses and The Tale of the Allergist’s Wife. It was recently reported that she was to guest star in Hallmark’s Signed, Sealed, Delivered. View Comments
Attention all Broadway fashion mavens: Disney’s got a new wearable work of art for your wardrobe! Broadway.com resident artist Justin “Squigs” Robertson penned a gorgeous portrait in honor of Aladdin’s opening night, and it’s now available as a t-shirt at the online Aladdin store. The limited edition t-shirt, as modeled above by Aladdin headliners Adam Jacobs and Courtney Reed, is a comfy cotton-poly blend in royal blue. Get ‘em before they’re gone, then see Aladdin on Broadway at the New Amsterdam Theatre! Star Files Courtney Reed About the Artist: With a desire to celebrate the magic of live theater and those who create it, and with a deep reverence for such touchstones as the work of Al Hirschfeld and the wall at Sardi’s, Squigs is happy and grateful to be among those carrying on the traditions where theater and caricature meet. He was born and raised in Oregon, lived in Los Angeles for quite a long time and now calls New York City his home. Aladdin from $57.50 Adam Jacobs View Comments Related Shows
View Comments Next stop the Great White Way?! Tony Yazbeck, Emily Skinner and Josh Grisetti, who as previously reported were circling the long-in-the-works musical Prince of Broadway, have boarded the Japanese production. Starring Ramin Karimloo and Shuler Hensley, the show celebrates the career of the 21-time Tony-winning director and producer Hal Prince and will begin rehearsals in the Big Apple on September 3. The tuner will play October 23 through November 22 at Tokyu Theatre Orb in Tokyo and November 28 through December 10 at Umeda Arts Theatre in Osaka.Tony nominated for his current role in On the Town,, which closes on September 6, Yazbeck is set to headline the production’s tour. His multiple additional Great White Way credits include Irving Berlin’s White Christmas, Gypsy, A Chorus Line and Oklahoma!. Skinner was Tony nominated for Side Show; she has also been seen on Broadway in Billy Elliot, Dinner at Eight, The Full Monty, James Joyce’s The Dead and Jekyll & Hyde. Grisetti made his Main Stem debut in It Shoulda Been You, which shuttered on August 9.Bryonha Marie Parham and Mariand Torres have also been tapped for the show. As previously reported, the production will additionally star Nancy Opel, Kaley Ann Voorhees and Reon Yuzuki.Prince of Broadway will be helmed by Prince himself with co-direction and choreography by Susan Stroman. The show pays tribute to Prince’s 60-year career and examines the circumstances and fortune, both good and bad, that led to him creating some of the most beloved theater of all time, including West Side Story, The Pajama Game, Cabaret, Follies, A Little Night Music, Sweeney Todd, The Phantom of the Opera, Evita and Company.The production will feature a book by David Thompson, set design by Beowulf Boritt, costume design by William Ivey Long, wig design by Paul Huntley, musical supervision and arrangements by Jason Robert Brown and musical direction by Fred Lassen.Prince of Broadway was originally slated to open on the Great White Way in 2012 starring Sierra Boggess, Richard Kind and Skinner. No word yet on whether the production is still Broadway-bound. Star Files Tony Yazbeck
View Comments Cheyenne Jackson is a busy, busy man! This year, he has theater, film and TV on his plate and on The Today Show on January 5, the Broadway favorite walked Kathie Lee and Hoda through each of his 2016 projects. First, he’s on American Horror Story: Hotel, which he booked in the most L.A. way possible. “We were in a spin class together,” he recalls of his pal and AHS creator Ryan Murphy. In Febraury, you can catch him at Lincoln Center in a concert presentation of The Secret Garden with Sydney Lucas, Sierra Boggess, Ramin Karimloo and more; it’s also poised for a future PBS broadcast. Later, look out for him having “fake rough sex” with Audra McDonald in the film adaptation of Hello Again. “You have to diversify if you want longevity,” Jackson told the Fourth Hour pair before praising them for being champions of Broadway and him. Aw, they’ve come a long way since this incident!
I’m a lifelong Yankee fan. I don’t exactly hate the Mets but their success bothers me the way I’m bothered by flies on a beautiful day. They’re a minor anoyance. Still, their success has lessons for the baseball fan and credit union executive alike.Baseball is undergoing a statistics driven revolution: its savviest executives are using Big Data to make decisions, ranging from whom to draft to where infielders should be positioned, that used to be considered non quantifiable.The Mets, who are headed to the World Series, have an Analytics Department that uses a top secret algorithm to help pick their lineup (No joke). Joe Madden of the Cubs was one of the first managers to position his infield based entirely on a batter’s statistically validated hitting tendencies, which is why it’s not uncommon to see a second baseman in short right field. And the Astros GM is so successful at drafting players – just ask the Yankees –that the FBI is investigating whether the St. Louis Cardinals tried to break into a database he uses. In fact, the most successful teams of the last few years haven’t been the ones with the most money to spend but the ones that aren’t afraid to use the analysis provided by an explosion of data points to challenge conventional wisdom. All the teams that I mentioned were better known for loosing than winning until they took new approaches to analyzing an old game. continue reading » 7SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr
Nov 26, 2008 (CIDRAP News) – A widely publicized Salmonella outbreak that was linked to frozen pot pies last year involved 401 cases in 41 states and put more than 100 patients in hospitals, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said today in a final report on the episode.The outbreak prompted changes in the label instructions for Banquet pot pies and warnings about the importance of thoroughly cooking frozen, not-ready-to-eat foods. And in today’s report, the CDC says the food industry and regulators should examine manufacturing processes for such foods to determine how safe it is to cook them in microwave ovens.Cases in the outbreak began in February and continued until December, peaking in September, according to the article in the Nov 28 issue of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Of patients for whom the information was available, 144 of 289 (50%) had bloody diarrhea, and 108 of 338 (32%) were hospitalized, the CDC says. The outbreak strain is known as Salmonella enterica serotype I 4,5,12:i:-.Rajal Mody, MD, a CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service officer, said a hospitalization rate of 32% is “close to average” for Salmonella outbreaks. He said a recent study that compared the hospitalization rates for many different Salmonella serotypes found that the average is 22.8%. The study was published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases (see link below).”There are definitely some strains that are lower, some in the 16% range, and there’s one as high as 67%, but that is a fairly rare serotype,” Mody told CIDRAP News. He said the same study indicated that the average hospitalization rate for the I 4,5,12:i:- strain is about 25%.The first cluster of cases involving the outbreak strain with matching DNA fingerprints was detected by Pennsylvania disease detectives in June, the CDC report says. But the source of infection was not discovered until a case-control study was launched in October.As part of that effort, epidemiologists in the Minnesota Department of Health determined that four case-patients had eaten Banquet pot pies in the week before they got sick. Further investigation of cases and neighborhood matched controls pointed to Banquet turkey pot pies as the only food associated with the outbreak.In subsequent interviews, 174 of 236 case-patients reported they had eaten frozen pot pies in the week before they fell ill, and more than 90% of these were Banquet or other brands made in the same plant. In addition, the outbreak strain was found in 13 unopened Banquet turkey pot pies collected from patients, all of them produced on Jul 13 or Jul 31, 2007.ConAgra Foods on Oct 8, 2007, suspended production of pot pies at the plant linked to the outbreak, and a few days later the company recalled all pot pies made there. Previous reports listed the plant location as Marshall, Mo.The CDC report indicates that many of the outbreak cases might have been related to undercooking of the pot pies in microwave ovens. “Banquet pot pie microwave instructions might have been confusing because different parts of the package recommended different preparation times,” the article says. Also, the microwave instructions varied by wattage, but few of the patients who were interviewed knew the wattage of their microwave. The report notes that ConAgra revised the labeling and instructions on the pot pies before resuming production.However, improper microwave cooking could not explain the entire outbreak, because 23% of case-patients who ate a pot pie reported cooking the pies in conventional ovens, the CDC says. The case-control study was not large enough to determine whether using a microwave rather than a conventional oven was a risk factor for illness.Several previous salmonellosis outbreaks have been linked to frozen, not-ready-to-eat foods, including several tied to frozen chicken entrees, the report notes. The pot pie outbreak differed from the previous ones in that all the meat ingredients in the pies were supposed to be precooked, with the crust being the only raw part, it says. The report suggests that contamination could have come from “raw frozen poultry pastes” used in making the pies. However, an intensive investigation of the ConAgra plant and its suppliers failed to pinpoint any source of contamination.In view of the likely role of microwave cooking in the outbreak, the CDC says, “Industry and regulators should consider examining the manufacturing processes for frozen not ready-to-eat foods to determine the extent to which microwave cooking is safe for these products.”Besides calling for clear instructions and warnings on frozen microwavable foods, the agency says that clear and prominent listing of the wattage on microwave ovens might improve consumer compliance with the cooking instructions.CDC. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella infections associated with frozen pot pies—United States, 2007. MMWR 2008 Nov 28;57(47):1277-80 [Full text]See also: Oct 12, 2007, CIDRAP News story “ConAgra recalls pot pies as Salmonella cases rise”Study from Jul 1, 2008, Journal of Infectious Diseases: “Salmonellosis outcomes differ substantially by serotype”
Jorginho could be offloaded (Picture: MB Media/Getty)‘I had to overcome a massive disappointment of being released by Chelsea at the age of 14,’ Rice told Sky Sports’ Soccer AM.‘That was everything I ever knew to be honest. From nine to 14, training there Monday to Friday, playing games and to get told you won’t be a part of that anymore was a major shock. I never thought it would have to happen but it did.‘And then I had the fortunate chance to sign for either Fulham or West Ham and chose West Ham and started a whole new chapter.More: FootballRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starChelsea defender Fikayo Tomori reveals why he made U-turn over transfer deadline day moveMikel Arteta rates Thomas Partey’s chances of making his Arsenal debut vs Man City‘I knew it was going to be tough, but always as a kid I wanted to be a professional footballer. Nothing was ever going to get in the way of me working as hard as possible to become that.‘I was just so driven and wanted to be the best I could be. I had to make sacrifices, move away from home, move into new digs, and now all the decisions that I made have played out really well.’Should Chelsea sign Declan Rice?Yes0%No0%Share your resultsShare your resultsTweet your resultsMORE: The bizarre new rules coming to the Premier LeagueMORE: Fergie warned Man Utd stars against going out in LiverpoolFollow Metro Sport across our social channels, on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. For more stories like this, check our sport page. Advertisement Comment Rice is a target for the Premier League big boys (Picture: CameraSport via Getty)Chelsea are reportedly ready to sell Jorginho, if they beat Manchester United and Arsenal to the £70million transfer of Declan Rice. West Ham are ready to cash in on the defensive-minded midfielder with ‘nobody safe’ from a squad overhaul, which is the result of cash flow issues due to coronavirus and also the desire for David Moyes to rebuild the squad in the long-term. Moyes would prefer to keep Rice but it’s recognised that he is one of the most valuable assets at the club. Chelsea released Rice as a 15-year-old but view him as an ideal summer recruit. AdvertisementAdvertisementADVERTISEMENTRead the latest updates: Coronavirus news liveBut his arrival could spell the end for Jorginho, according to The Sun. Frank Lampard is a big fan of Billy Gilmour, who has impressed when stepping up to the first team this season, and N’Golo Kante is viewed as one of the most important players in the squad. Rice recently opened up on the disappointment of being released by Chelsea after spending eight years in the club’s academy. Metro Sport ReporterTuesday 28 Apr 2020 9:57 amShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link1.4kShares Chelsea ready to offload Jorginho if they beat Man Utd and Arsenal to Declan Rice transfer Advertisement